Most of travelers who fly from Tehran to Isfahan, few minutes before approaching to Isfahan airport; they can see a line of small hills around holes from the plane’s windows. “What are these holes which are located in a straight line”. This is one of the first questions most of them ask.
Qanats as subterranean aqueducts which are source of life for several Iranian villages are located at the edge of desert and also in plains (Dashts).
People who live in Iranian plateau, especially in dry areas have invented digging Qanat construction since 3000 years ago in order to approach to underground water drops. This method of water supplies has moved from Iran to the Middle East . Usually those villages which are located down a hill can take advantage of Qanat method.
A Qanat is made of tens of deep wells which can continue for kilometers. First far wells at higher elevation are deeper and as deep as they tap spring of water. Then first deep wells are connected to less deeper wells by a tunnel which flows water to the village located at lower elevation. Every year skilled people who are called Moghanni (well- digger) with simple hand made machineries and strong ropes can go down to the well, in order to restore the water tunnel. Extra mud and sands are removed to the ground surface, left around the hole (shaft).
Regular restoration increases water flow remarkably. At least a four member Moghannies do the job in every early spring. Two persons working on the ground and two Moghannies work in the tunnel. Qanats collect even drops of water from the depth below the surface and guide it to the thirsty village.